The terms below are needed for the clear communication of form and technique during practice.  Many of these are important for rank advancement.  Birankai provides these guidelines for advancement through white belt (Kyu) and black belt (Dan) levels.

People

O-Sensei – Morihei Ueshiba, founder of Aikido

Sensei – teacher. The word literally means “the one who is born before” which regards the transmission of an art or craft through physical means from generation to generation.

Nage – defender (person who throws)

Uke – attacker (person who falls)

Sempai – senior student

Kohai – junior student

Deshi – apprentice

Uchi Deshi – “live in” trainee (inside dojo)

Soto Deshi – “outside” trainee (outside dojo)

YudanSha – black belt level students (addressed as a group)

Kenshusel – teacher-trainee program

Shihan – master instructor

Shidoin – instructor

Fukushidoin – assistant instructor


Miscellaneous

Dojo – school, place of The Way

Ai – blending, harmony

Ki – energy, spirit, breath

Do – a path, a way

Hara – physical center (of body)

Jyo, Jo – wooden staff

Bokken – wooden sword

Tanto – wooden knife

Katana – sword

Gi – dojo practice uniform

Obi – belt

Hakama – black or blue split pants worn over gi pants

Waza – technique

Kyu – basic level (grade), white belt ranks

Dan – black belt ranks

Keiko, Geiko – practice

Keiko-gi – practice uniform

Kan-geiko – cold weather practice

Chochu-geiko – hot weather practice

Misogi – purification or cleansing of body mind, spirit through special practice

Zen – meditation discipline

Zendo – meditation hail

Zazen – formal zen meditation

Zafu – meditation pillow

Zabuton – flat meditation cushion

Roshi – zen master

O-negai-shimasu - “please practice with me”

Domo-arigato-gozai-mashita - “thank you very much”

Kata – form

Ichi – “one”

Ni – “two”

San – “three”

Shi – “four”

Go – “five”

Roku – “six”

Shichi – “seven”

Hachi – “eight”

Ku – “nine”

Ju – “ten”

Positions

Seiza – sitting position

Tachi-waza – techniques done from standing position

Swari-waza – techniques done from kneeling position

Hanmi-handachi – nage sitting, uke standing

Ma-ai – space or distance (“the past”)

De-ai – timing of meeting (“the now” of each encounter)

Zanshin – continuation of energy and awareness (“the future”)


Stances

Kamai – stance

Hanmi – triangular stance

Gyaku-hanmi – left-to-right or right-to-left (“toe to toe”)

Ai-hanmi – right-to-right or left-to-left (“criss-cross”)


Body Movement / Footwork

Tai-sabaki – body movement

Irimi – entering, forward movement

Tenkan – turning, pivoting on front foot

Omote – movement in front

Ura – movement behind

Kaiten – rotate (“wheel”)

Uchi – inside

Soto – outside

Ushiro – behind

Ukemi – protective falling and following

Kaeshi or Gaeshi – twist or reverse

Henka – to change


Attacks

Dori – grab

Katate-dori – one-hand grab

Kata-dori – shoulder grab

Sade-dori – one hand sleeve grab

Mune-dori – one hand grab to front of gi

Shomen-uchi – strike to center of head (on top)

Yokomen-uchi – strike to side of head (temple)

Ryote-dori – grab both wrists

Morote-dori – grab one forearm with both hands

Tsuki – punch.

Atemi – strike

Tegetana – edge of hand (“knife hand”)

Jodan – upper aspect

Chudan – middle aspect

Gedan – lower aspect


Techniques

Ikkyo

Shihohnage

Kaiten-nage

Nikkyo

Iriminage

Tenchi-nage

Sankyo

Kokyu-nage

Sumi-otoshi

Yonkyo

Kokyu-ho

Juji-nage

Gokyo

Kokyu-dosa

Ude-garame

Rokyo

Kotegaeshi

Kata-gatame

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